Does CBD Elevate Liver Enzymes?
I am someone who doesn’t trust anything until I have researched it myself. In fact, before I would give my pets full spectrum hemp extract (CBD), I got my certificate in the biology and therapeutic uses of medical cannabis from the University of Vermont Larner College of Medicine. I also made it my mission to share as much research and information with pet parents about cannabis and other holistic methods of healing as possible.
One of the questions my team and I are asked often is whether CBD is safe and if it has any negative effects on pets. Because of a recent study, a stern warning from the FDA, and negative coverage in mainstream media outlets, the question has been posed: does cannabidiol, or CBD, elevate liver enzymes to dangerous levels? To find out the truth, I consulted the country’s top holistic veterinarians and did a little digging to explain what this means.
What was the study about that alleged CBD is unsafe for dogs because of elevated liver enzymes?
The original study that alleged that CBD raised liver enzymes was published in a medical journal called Molecules, and was conducted by the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences. Researchers looked at the effect of various dosage amounts on mice, using the recommended dosage amount for humans to scale. The study found that mice who received higher doses of CBD showed liver damage within 24 hours, with 75 percent on the brink of death in a matter of days. Scary stuff, right?
There is just one big problem with the study: it was conducted using Epidiolex, an FDA approved CBD isolate, and the dosage was astronomically high. Epidiolex is NOT a full spectrum hemp extract, which means that the entourage effect is not in place and the amounts given were purposefully misleading.
To conduct the experiment, scientists fed mice single doses of CBD ranging from “low” at 246 mg/kg up to a mega-dose of 2460 mg/kg CBD. To break it down, for every kilogram of body weight, they gave the mice about 2.5 grams of CBD. This dose is over ten times the normal dose – which is unreasonably high, and which caused the study to be skewed away from reasonable use from the start. The study’s abstract also presents math that is impossible. Since only 6 mice were studied, 75 percent of mice would have been 4.5, leaving only 1.5 mice to survive. Perhaps it is the animal lover in me, but I do hope that whichever mouse was able to survive in two halves is living a healthy life to this day, but something tells me that this figure is simply incorrect.
Dr. Gary Richter, a holistic veterinarian and owner and medical director of Holistic Veterinary Care in Oakland, CA, has been using medical cannabis to treat dogs and cats in his practice for years. After years of research, Dr. Richter has spoken publicly about this study and shares that your pet cannot overdose on CBD, and elevated liver enzymes were reported incorrectly.
“Life-threatening risks for dogs from medical cannabis are exceedingly rare,” Richter says. “Toxicity more often occurs when a pet has eaten a product that contains chocolate, coffee, or raisins. Even if the THC toxicity is not excessive, they can sometimes have problems due to these other ingredients.”
Dr. Richter also notes that most medications, including Tylenol, raise liver enzymes, and when given extremely high doses of these common medications (or small doses over long periods of time) liver damage can occur. However, research has not shown that life-long use of cannabis has an adverse effect on the liver. In fact, it has shown the opposite, because elevated liver enzymes cease as soon as cannabis leaves the system (unlike dangerous pharmaceuticals) and CBD can be tolerated in dogs at very high dosages without fatal side effects.
“You always have to look at the clinical picture. Looking at one study’s research regarding elevated liver enzymes and focusing on it is a fear-based approach to medicine. And, it’s inhibiting our ability to understand this plant as a whole.”- Dr. Zac Pilossoph
Why would the makers of Epidiolex want negative results?
Epidiolex is made by a pharmaceutical company called GW Pharmaceuticals, who has taken great pains to corner the market on cannabis. In fact, they routinely lobby for stricter regulations that only they can meet, for example, they have pushed for legislation making it harder for medical cannabis companies to be marketed unless FDA approved. So, pushing researchers to find an issue with liver toxicity can only serve to benefit them by allowing them to be the only company able to provide a product that potentially will NOT elevate enzymes when used as directed. By raising consumer skepticism and fear of cannabis, they can effectively corner the market.
Does CBD have any adverse effects on dogs?
Studies have shown that CBD is actually safer for dogs than many prescription medications, like phenobarbital. In a study conducted by Colorado State University, 10 mg/kg/day or 20mg/kg/day was administered to dogs for 6 days. CBD was tolerated in the study population. There was an elevation in serum ALP in 36 percent of patients, and all other blood parameters were normal – nothing more than a reaction to normal over the counter medications. Six of the 30 dogs had vomiting, and all had mild diarrhea. 11 of 30 dogs experienced erythema of pinna and 10 of 30 dogs experienced nasal and ocular discharge. These effects were significantly safer than many side effects of both over the counter and prescription medications.
Full spectrum hemp extract (CBD) has several positive benefits for dogs. Full spectrum hemp extract (CBD) has been proven to shorten the duration and frequency of seizures, reduce inflammation and pain associated with arthritis and pancreatitis, treat allergies, prevent anxiety, maintain optimal blood sugar levels in patients with diabetes, alleviate symptoms of Cushing’s Disease and other autoimmune diseases, and even shrink tumors (including skin tumors). Research is continually being conducted to share the benefits of CBD for both humans and their canine companions. To stay up to date with all of the latest studies, visit www.cbddoghealth.com/studies/.
To learn more about the benefits and risks of full spectrum hemp extract (CBD), visit cbd dog health.
About Angela Ardolino
Angela Ardolino is a holistic pet expert who has been caring for animals for over 20 years and operates a rescue farm, Fire Flake Farm, in Florida. She is also the owner of Beautify the Beast, a natural pet salon and shop. After getting her certificate in Medical Cannabis Biology and Therapeutic use from the University of Vermont School of Medicine, she founded CBD Dog Health to provide high quality, all-natural medical cannabis products designed specifically for pets. Angela has seven dogs, Odie a 12-year-old mini-schnauzer, Nina an 8-year-old Doberman. Jolene a 7-year-old mutt, Maza a 7-year-old mutt, Rhemi an 8-year-old poodle, Potato a 15-year-old shih-tzu, and Miss Daisie a 15-year-old black lab, plus 4-10 more at any time she is fostering or boarding. She uses Full Spectrum Hemp Extract on all her pets at her rescue farm every day, and has since 2016. She is a member of the Society of Cannabis Clinicians, the Veterinary Cannabis Association and has trained hundreds medical doctors and veterinarians about the therapeutic uses of medical cannabis on animals. Visit www.angelaardolino.com for more information.