What Are Terpenes?
If you’ve never heard of terpenes before, you’ll be surprised to hear they often surround you in everyday life. Have you ever smelled the beautiful fragrance of a flower? Perhaps you have lavender products around your house for calming or comfort. You may also love that sweet, citrus smell from the oranges sitting on your counter. Those scents come from the powerful terpenes within the plant. Their actual purpose, to the plant, is to repel pests and attract pollinators for survival. For therapeutic purposes, they are antioxidants and possess anti-inflammatory properties among other benefits.
One of the richest, most powerful sources of terpenes is from the Cannabis plant. Over 100 different terpenes have been found thus far within the Cannabis plant. In the cannabis plant, terpenes play a role in differentiating the effects of cannabis strains. Some terpenes promote anxiety relief and relaxation. Others are known to help with focus.
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Effects of Terpenes
Terpenes aren’t psychoactive so they don’t produce a ‘high’ like THC, but some still contain sedative, anti-anxiety properties. The terpenes found in our product, CALM full-spectrum hemp oil, include the following:
Linalool is most commonly found in the lavender plant. The terpene, linalool, is what provides lavender with the rich, fruity scent it provides and is primarily responsible for the calming effects people experience with lavender aromatherapy. In addition to serving as a tool for anxiety, a study in Colloids and Surfaces Biointerfaces found it’s also helpful as an:
Front Psychiatry also recently published a Review of the Potential Use of Pinene and Linalool as Terpene-Based Medicines for Brain Health. The review states ¨Existing data suggests that pinene and linalool are relevant candidates for further investigation as novel medicines for illnesses, including stroke, ischemia, inflammatory and neuropathic pain (including migraine), cognitive impairment (relevant to Alzheimer’s disease and ageing), insomnia, anxiety, and depression. Linalool and pinene influence multiple neurotransmitter, inflammatory and neurotrophic signals as well as behaviour, demonstrating psycho-activity (albeit non-intoxicating). Optimising the phytochemical profile of cannabis chemovars to yield therapeutic levels of beneficial terpenes and cannabinoids, such as linalool, pinene and CBD, could present a unique opportunity to discover novel medicines to treat psychiatric and neurological illnesses; however, further research is needed.¨
Omicene is a lesser-known terpene commonly found in fruits and plants. In fact, it’s aroma can actually be found in various perfumes. It’s recognized by its sweet, woodsy aroma and is known to help plants defend themselves.
Omicene is naturally found in cannabis, but also in mint, parsley, pepper, and orchids. Medicinally, it’s known to be antiviral, antifungal, antibacterial, and antiseptic. It’s also known to work well as a decongestant.
Beta-Myrcene acts as an antibiotic, antimutagenic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory agent. Myrcene is the most common terpene in most commercial types of cannabis and is known for its earthy scent. Myrcene can also be found in lemongrass and thyme. Myrcene has been utilized for centuries as a sleep-aid.
According to research, scientists suggest myrcene reduces pain by increasing the necessary chemicals sent to the brain and spinal cord.
The antimutagenic effects are those necessary to block cancer-causing agents that are produced by fungi and consumed in food. The liver enzyme known as CYP2B1 is inhibited by myrcene and reduces damage done to the body’s DNA.
Geraniol is known for its rose-like aroma. It’s a monoterpene found in the essential oils from lemongrass, citronella, rose oil, lavender, and various fruits. It’s also emitted from various plants and widely used in the cosmetics industry.
According to the National Library of Medicine, it’s a known microbial compound, anti-cancer, antioxidant, and neuroprotective. Due to its ability to sensitize tumor cells, researchers believe it could be a promising chemoprotective agent. The National Library of Medicine also states “due to its anticancer effects, geraniol has been found to be protective against a broad range of cancer including breast, lung, colon, prostate, pancreatic, skin, liver, kidney, and oral cancers.” They continued to state “these pharmacologic effects are clinically important as geraniol as classified as generally-recognized-as-safe (GRAS) by the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the United States.”
The scent of black pepper comes from the terpene known as Beta-Caryophyllene and is also found in Cannabis. This terpene interacts in the body with the endocannabinoid receptor (CB2) reducing pain and inflammation. Research has also shown caryophyllene could significantly reduce anxiety and depression.
The Entourage Effect
The interaction between terpenes and cannabinoids are what causes what is known as the entourage effect. Cannabinoids and terpenes work together synergistically to provide pain relief, anxiety relief, and reduction of inflammation among other benefits. That’s why it’s critical to ensure you are purchasing a high-quality, full spectrum CBD tincture.
Full-spectrum means that all the cannabinoids and terpenes that can possibly be present, are present. There are thousands of cannabinoids and terpenes in the Cannabis plant, so it’s not possible to preserve each and every one. But, none were purposely removed during manufacturing. And, that’s critical to ensuring the CBD tincture you’re relying on is as effective as possible.
Each terpene and cannabinoid in CBD Dog Health’s tinctures are critical to the effectiveness of the product. Terpenes and cannabinoids work together to produce the best possible effect. Additional research must be conducted to determine the best uses for various terpenes in pets. But, we are on our way to determining the best possible strains for the ailments our dogs experience.
About Angela Ardolino
Angela Ardolino is a holistic pet expert who has been caring for animals for over 20 years and operates a rescue farm, Fire Flake Farm, in Florida. She is also the owner of Beautify the Beast, a natural pet salon and shop. After getting her certificate in Medical Cannabis Biology and Therapeutic use from the University of Vermont School of Medicine, she founded CBD Dog Health to provide high quality, all-natural medical cannabis products designed specifically for pets. Angela has seven dogs, Odie a 12-year-old mini-schnauzer, Nina an 8-year-old Doberman. Jolene a 7-year-old mutt, Maza a 7-year-old mutt, Rhemi an 8-year-old poodle, Potato a 15-year-old shih-tzu, and Miss Daisie a 15-year-old black lab, plus 4-10 more at any time she is fostering or boarding. She uses Full Spectrum Hemp Extract on all her pets at her rescue farm every day, and has since 2016. She is a member of the Society of Cannabis Clinicians, the Veterinary Cannabis Association and has trained hundreds medical doctors and veterinarians about the therapeutic uses of medical cannabis on animals. Visit www.angelaardolino.com for more information.